This topic compares the fine structure of Prokaryote cells, Eucaryote cells and Viruses. We explore the structure and properties of cell membranes and how the recognition of cell surface antigens has led to the evolution of the immune response.

This topic looks at the physical processes involved in exchanging substances across a cell membrane and how complex organisms have evolved elaborate organ systems in an attempt to bypass the limits of those same physical processes.

This Unit looks at energy flow through the ecosystem both at the large scale, through habitats and also within plant and animal cells in the context of Photosynthesis and Respiration.

As well as the control of genetic information, this topic looks at the interplay between the genes and the environment.